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什麼是數字證書?

數位證書是驗證在線交易中網站、伺服器或個人身份的電子文檔。它使用公鑰加密來建立各方之間的安全通信和信任。數位證書由稱為證書頒發機構 (CA) 的受信任頒發機構頒發,用於確認證書持有者身份的真實性。它們包含擁有者姓名、公鑰、頒發機構和有效期等資訊,確保通過互聯網進行安全和加密的數據交換

數字證書如何工作?

當您使用安全連接超文本傳輸協定安全 (HTTPS) 訪問網站時,您的 Web 瀏覽器會收到該網站的數位證書。該證書包含一個公鑰,您的瀏覽器使用該公鑰在將數據發送到網站之前對其進行加密。該網站的伺服器擁有相應的私鑰,用於解密數據。此加密過程可確保您與網站的通信保持安全並防止竊聽或篡改。

為什麼需要數字證書?

您需要數位憑證來保護您的線上交易、通信和交互。它使你能夠與網站建立安全連接,對電子郵件進行簽名和加密,並在各種連線方案中驗證你的身份。數位證書對於維護隱私、防止數據洩露和確保在線交易的完整性至關重要。

誰頒發數字證書?

數位證書通常由受信任的第三方組織(稱為證書頒發機構)頒發。這些 CA 驗證請求證書的實體的身份,然後頒發由 CA 進行數位簽章的數位憑證。數位簽章驗證證書的真實性,允許其他人信任它所持有的資訊。

我可以頒發自己的數字證書嗎?

是的,您可以頒發自己的數字證書,但該證書僅在您自己的環境中或由明確信任您的證書的人員信任。通常,為了獲得廣泛的信任和認可,最好從受信任的 CA 獲取數字證書。這樣,您的證書將得到廣泛的使用者和應用程式的認可和信任。

從 CA 獲取數位憑證的過程是什麼?

要從 CA 獲取數位證書,通常需要在系統上生成公鑰-私鑰對。然後,向 CA 提供您的公鑰和一些標識資訊。CA 會驗證您的身份並執行檢查,以確保您是要為其請求證書的域或實體的合法擁有者。確認後,CA 將頒發數位證書,您可以將其安裝在伺服器或設備上。

數字證書的有效期是多久?

數字證書的有效期因 CA 和證書類型而異。通常,證書的簽發期限為特定期限,例如一年或兩年。證書過期后,它不再被視為有效,您需要向 CA 續訂它。跟蹤證書過期時間以確保在線操作的不間斷安全性至關重要。

如果數位證書被洩露,會發生什麼情況?

如果數位證書被洩露,可能會導致各種安全風險。攻擊者可以類比證書所屬的實體、攔截敏感資訊或篡改各方之間的通信。在這種情況下,立即吊銷受損證書並將其替換為新證書至關重要。吊銷機制(如證書吊銷清單 (CRL) 或連線證書狀態協定 (OCSP))用於通知使用者和系統有關吊銷證書的資訊。

如何檢查網站的數字證書是否有效?

您可以通過檢查 Web 瀏覽器位址列中顯示的資訊來檢查網站數位憑證的有效性。在統一資源定位器 (URL) 中查找鎖圖示或“HTTPS”前綴,表明連接由有效證書保護。您還可以按兩下鎖定圖示以查看有關證書的詳細資訊,包括其有效期和頒發證書的 CA。如果證書已過期、已吊銷或與網站標識不匹配,您的瀏覽器將顯示警告。

什麼是自簽名證書?

自簽名證書是由其建立者而不是受信任的 CA 簽名的數位證書。雖然自簽名證書可以提供加密,但預設情況下,Web 瀏覽器和其他應用程式不信任它們。因此,當您遇到使用自簽名證書的網站時,您的瀏覽器將顯示一條警告消息,您需要在繼續之前手動驗證並信任該證書。

數位證書可以用於電子郵件加密嗎?

是的,數位證書可用於電子郵件加密。通過獲取數位證書並與他人共用您的公鑰,您可以安全地交換加密的電子郵件。當您使用收件者的公鑰加密電子郵件時,只有他們可以使用相應的私鑰解密和閱讀郵件。電子郵件加密有助於保護電子郵件通信的隱私和機密性。

數位證書和SSL證書有什麼區別?

數位證書和安全套接字層 (SSL) 證書本質上是一回事。SSL 證書是傳輸層安全性 (TLS) 協定的前身。SSL 和 TLS 證書都是用於保護網站連接和啟用 HTTPS 加密的數位證書。術語「SSL證書」通常通常用於指SSL和TLS證書,即使該技術已發展為TLS。

什麼是通配符證書?

通配符證書是一種數位證書,允許您使用單個證書保護域及其子域。例如,使用“*.example.com”的通配符證書,您可以保護“example.com”、“www.example.com”、“mail.example.com”以及“example.com”下的任何其他子域。這樣就無需為每個子域獲取單獨的證書,從而簡化了證書管理過程。

是否可以在多台伺服器上使用相同的數字證書?

是的,您可以在多台伺服器上使用相同的數字證書。獲得數位證書后,可以將其安裝在需要它的任何伺服器或設備上。這允許您使用相同的受信任證書保護多個系統或服務,從而確保整個基礎架構的一致安全性。

數位證書可以用於代碼簽名嗎?

是的,數位證書可用於代碼簽名。代碼簽名是對軟體或代碼進行數位簽名以驗證其真實性和完整性的過程。通過使用數位證書對代碼進行簽名,開發人員可以證明代碼未被篡改並且來自受信任的來源。當使用者遇到簽名代碼時,他們的系統可以驗證數字簽名,以確保自簽名以來未被更改。

什麼是證書連結?

證書連結是指將證書連結在一起以建立信任鏈的過程。證書鏈以根證書開頭,後跟一個或多個中間證書,並以最終實體證書(例如,網站證書或代碼簽名證書)結束。鏈中的每個證書都由其後面的證書進行數位簽名,從而形成信任關係。通過確認整個鏈,可以驗證最終實體證書的可信度。

我可以將數位證書傳輸到其他伺服器嗎?

是的,您可以將數位憑證傳輸到其他伺服器。該過程通常涉及從當前伺服器匯出證書及其相應的私鑰,然後將其導入新伺服器。傳輸證書的確切步驟可能因伺服器軟體和配置而異。請務必確保私鑰在傳輸過程中保持安全,以維護證書的完整性和安全性。

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