How does the CPU work?

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How does a CPU work?

A CPU works by executing instructions that have been read from memory - these instructions tell the CPU what operations need to be performed on particular data items stored in memory or registers. When an instruction is fetched from memory it is sent through the control unit where it is decoded, and any necessary addresses/data items are determined; this information is then passed along to the ALU where operations are actually carried out according to what was specified in the instruction. After the operations have been completed, any resulting values are stored back into memory if needed before fetching another instruction and repeating this process until all of the program’s instructions have been executed.

What is a CPU?

A Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the brains of a computer system - it's essentially what tells the computer what to do and how to do it. A CPU is composed of circuitry, which consists of three main components: a control unit, an arithmetic/logic unit (ALU), and a register set. The control unit fetches instructions from memory, decodes them, determines the address of data stored in memory (if necessary), and then passes the data and instruction information along to the ALU for processing. The ALU performs the computation or logic required by each instruction, stores intermediate results in registers if necessary, and then sends the result back to memory where it can be accessed by other programs or written to disk. The registers are used to hold short-term data while it is being processed by the CPU.

What are cores?

A core is one instance of an execution unit within a multicore processor. Each core has its own private cache, which allows it to carry out tasks independently without having to access main memory as often; however multiple cores can share resources such as an L2 cache. Multiple cores allow for greater parallelism when executing instructions, meaning that more instructions can be executed simultaneously and therefore more work can be done in less time than with one single-core processor. This makes multicore processors ideal for intensive computing tasks like video editing or 3D rendering.

What are threads?

Threads are sequences of execution that can execute concurrently within a single process or application on a single processor core. Threads allow applications/programs to appear as though they're running faster than they really are because they're able utilize multiple cores at once - with multiple threads running at once on different cores, more work can be done without waiting on any one thread to finish executing before another thread can begin execution again on another core. This makes multi-threaded applications much more efficient than their single-threaded counterparts since there's no need for context switching between threads when running multiple processes at once on separate cores as opposed to just one core with many threads queued up for processing after each other sequentially like you would find with a single threaded application.

What is hyper-threading?

Hyper-Threading (HT) is Intel’s proprietary technology that enables multiple logical processors within each physical processor core - essentially allowing two simultaneous streams of instructions per physical core (this appears as four “virtual” processors instead of two). Introducing HT into CPUs has allowed Intel CPUs better multitasking performance due to their increased processing capabilities per clock cycle - this allows them handle large workloads faster than previous generations which were limited by clock speeds alone (which only had limited scope increases). In addition, HT also helps increase throughput in some cases as well as IPC gains thanks to better scheduling efficiency when dealing with larger thread counts compared without HT turned off in those same scenarios.

What is RISC vs CISC architecture?

RISC stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computer – this typically refers to architectures which use significantly fewer complex instruction types than CISC architectures (Complex Instruction Set Computers). CISC architectures typically consist of highly varied instruction sets ranging from simple arithmetic operations through complex ones involving several steps such as string manipulation etc. while RISC tends towards simpler yet faster instructions (which make up less area per chip due to diminished complexity) so they tend towards higher performance characteristics given similar clock speeds across both architectures.

What are pipelines?

Pipelines in CPUs refer specifically towards architectures that split up various stages involved within an instruction's execution into discrete parts so that results from earlier stages become available quicker later stages thus allowing further optimizations such as out of order dispatch and execution – this allows some parts run faster or slower depending upon their individual requirement rather than having every stage wait on each other leading up to significant performance gains over nonpipelined designs thus making possible modern day highspeed & multithreaded processors.

What are caches?

Caches are small blocks of relatively fast RAM located close either directly inside or near the central processing unit which serves two functions: firstly, taking pressure off main memory reads and writes since caches operate at lower latency secondly speeding up.

What is a cache line?

A cache line is the smallest block of data that can be transferred from main memory to the CPU cache. A cache line typically consists of 64 bytes on a processor with 4-byte instructions, and 128 bytes for 8-byte instructions. Whenever the CPU requests data from memory, it fetches the entire line rather than just one piece of data or instruction; this helps reduce latency by ensuring that any related pieces of data will also be in the CPU's cache if they're needed in future operations.

What is multiprocessing?

Multiprocessing is an umbrella term used to describe multiple CPUs working together either as part of a single computer system or distributed across multiple systems/devices. In most modern computers/servers/networks multiprocessing can take several forms including Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP), where two or more CPUs share access to RAM and other resources; Asymmetric Multiprocessing (AMP), where one or more processors act as masters and delegate tasks to subordinate processors; and Massively Parallel Processing (MPP), where multiple processors cooperate to perform complex computational tasks quickly over vast amounts of data.

What is superscalar architecture?

Superscalar architecture refers to high-performance CPUs which are capable of executing more than one instruction at the same time - this allows them to increase performance by allowing multiple instructions to be executed simultaneously rather than sequentially as they would have been in previous generations, thus reducing latency and increasing throughput by utilizing idle execution units when necessary. By doing so, superscalar architectures make more efficient use of available processor resources resulting in faster processing speeds compared even with higher clocked predecessors.

What are microprocessors?

A microprocessor is essentially a die-shrunk version of a full-sized processor designed for smaller devices such as embedded systems, PDAs, cell phones, etc. where power consumption and physical size are two major factors. Microprocessors usually utilize simpler architectures than their larger counterparts in order to reduce cost & complexity whilst still offering comparable performance for their intended purpose.

How does virtualization work?

Virtualization technology allows a computer system’s hardware resources (such as CPU cores, memory etc.) to be divided into different “virtual” machines which each run its own operating system independently from other VMs – this makes it possible for multiple users/applications within an organization or household to make use of one physical machine’s resources without affecting each other since each VM operates completely separate from every other VM running on the same machine with its own dedicated subset of available hardware resources accordingly. This makes virtualization very useful in saving both space & power whilst also allowing more efficient utilization of existing hardware due to reduced duplication between machines/devices.

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