What is Multics?

This is a recommends products dialog
Top Suggestions
Starting at
View All >
Language
French
English
ไทย
German
繁體中文
Country
Hi
All
Sign In / Create Account
language Selector,${0} is Selected
Join & Shop in Lenovo Pro
Register at Education Store
Pro Tier Benefits
• Save up to an extra 5% on Think everyday pricing
• Purchase up to 10 systems per order (5 more than Lenovo.com)
• Spend $10K, advance to Plus Tier with increased benefits
Plus Tier Benefits
• Save up to an extra 6% on Think everyday pricing
• Purchase up to 25 systems per order (20 more than Lenovo.com)
• Spend $50K, advance for free to Elite Tier with increased benefits
• Take advantage of flexible payment options with TruScale Device as a Service. Learn More >
Elite Tier Benefits
• Save up to an extra 7% on Think everyday pricing
• Purchase up to 50 systems per order (45 more than Lenovo.com)
• Take advantage of flexible payment options with TruScale Device as a Service. Learn More >
Partner Benefits
• Access to Lenovo's full product portfolio
• Configure and Purchase at prices better than Lenovo.com
View All Details >
more to reach
PRO Plus
PRO Elite
Congratulations, you have reached Elite Status!
Pro for Business
Delete icon Remove icon Add icon Reload icon
TEMPORARILY UNAVAILABLE
DISCONTINUED
Temporary Unavailable
Cooming Soon!
. Additional units will be charged at the non-eCoupon price. Purchase additional now
We're sorry, the maximum quantity you are able to buy at this amazing eCoupon price is
Sign in or Create an Account to Save Your Cart!
Sign in or Create an Account to Join Rewards
View Cart
Your cart is empty! Don’t miss out on the latest products and savings — find your next favorite laptop, PC, or accessory today.
Remove
item(s) in cart
Some items in your cart are no longer available. Please visit cart for more details.
has been deleted
Please review your cart as items have changed.
of
Contains Add-ons
Subtotal
Proceed to checkout
Yes
No
Popular Searches
What are you looking for today ?
Quick Links
Recent Searches
Hamburger Menu
skip to main content
{"arrowColor":"","backgroundColor":"#e6f4fa","divideColor":"#DBDBDB","sideMsg":"","data":[{"pcInfo":"","mAndTabInfo":"","bannerInfo":{"t_id":"Pagee5febe51-a42e-4041-8b3b-da5de5e1ad2d","language":{"fr_ca":"","en_ca":"%3Cp%3E%3Cstrong%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3Cstrong%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3C%2Fp%3E%3Cp%3E%3Cstrong%3E%3Cspan%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20nowrap%3B%22%3E%3C%2Fspan%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3C%2Fp%3E%3Cp%3E%3Cstrong%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3Cstrong%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3Cstrong%3EBlack%20Friday%20in%20July!%20%3C%2Fstrong%3ESave%20up%20to%20%7BsavingPercent%7D%20on%20laptops%20%26amp%3B%20accessories!%20Plus%2C%20free%20shipping%20sitewide.%26nbsp%3B%3Ca%20href%3D%22%2Fd%2Fdeals%2Fdoorbusters%2F%3FIPromoID%3DLEN944203%22%20target%3D%22_self%22%3E%3Cstrong%3EShop%20Now%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3C%2Fa%3E%3C%2Fp%3E","en":"%3Cp%3E%3Cstrong%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3Cstrong%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3Cstrong%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3Cspan%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3C%2Fspan%3E%3Cstrong%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3Cstrong%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3EBlack%20Friday%20in%20July!%26nbsp%3B%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3Cspan%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3ESave%20up%20to%20%7BsavingPercent%7D%20on%20laptops%20%26amp%3B%20accessories!%20Plus%2C%20free%20shipping%20sitewide.%3C%2Fspan%3E%3Cspan%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2Fspan%3E%3Ca%20href%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fadmin.lenovo.com%2Fd%2Fdeals%2Fdoorbusters%2F%3FIPromoID%3DLEN944203%22%20target%3D%22_self%22%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3Cstrong%3EShop%20Now%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3C%2Fa%3E%3Ca%20href%3D%22%2Fd%2Fdeals%2Fdoorbusters%2F%3FIPromoID%3DLEN944203%22%20target%3D%22_self%22%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3Cstrong%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3C%2Fa%3E%3Ca%20href%3D%22%2Fd%2Fdeals%2Flenovo-sale%2F%3FIPromoID%3DLEN944203%22%20target%3D%22_self%22%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3Cstrong%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3C%2Fa%3E%3Ca%20href%3D%22%2Fd%2Fdeals%2Fdoorbusters%2F%3FIPromoID%3DLEN944203%22%20target%3D%22_self%22%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3Cstrong%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3C%2Fa%3E%3Ca%20href%3D%22%2Fd%2Fdeals%2Fbusiness%2F%3FIPromoID%3DLEN944203%22%20target%3D%22_self%22%20textvalue%3D%22Shop%20Now%22%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3Cstrong%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3C%2Fa%3E%3Cspan%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3C%2Fspan%3E%3C%2Fp%3E","fr":""},"id":"Pagee5febe51-a42e-4041-8b3b-da5de5e1ad2d"},"gInfo":""},{"pcInfo":"","mAndTabInfo":"","bannerInfo":{"t_id":"Page7b778271-8d5b-4b04-b722-f0345a7d6e87","language":{"fr_ca":"","en_ca":"%3Cp%3E%3Cstrong%3E%3Cspan%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3C%2Fspan%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3Cstrong%3EShopping%20for%20a%20business%3F%3C%2Fstrong%3E%20New%20Lenovo%20Pro%20members%20get%20%24100%20off%20first%20order%20of%20%241%2C000%2B%2C%20exclusive%20savings%20%26amp%3B%201%3A1%20tech%20support.%3Cspan%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%26nbsp%3B%3Ca%20href%3D%22%2Fbusiness%2Fbenefits%2F%3FIPromoID%3DLEN818484%22%20target%3D%22_self%22%3E%3Cstrong%3ELearn%20More%20%26gt%3B%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3C%2Fa%3E%3C%2Fspan%3E%3C%2Fp%3E","en":"%3Cp%3E%3Cstrong%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3EShopping%20for%20a%20business%3F%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3Cspan%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%26nbsp%3BNew%20Lenovo%20Pro%20members%20get%20%24100%20off%20first%20order%20of%20%241%2C000%2B%2C%20exclusive%20savings%20%26amp%3B%201%3A1%20tech%20support.%3C%2Fspan%3E%3Cspan%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%26nbsp%3B%3Ca%20href%3D%22%2Fbusiness%2Fbenefits%2F%3FIPromoID%3DLEN818484%22%20target%3D%22_self%22%20textvalue%3D%22Learn%20More%20%26gt%3B%22%3E%3Cstrong%3ELearn%20More%20%26gt%3B%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3C%2Fa%3E%3C%2Fspan%3E%3C%2Fp%3E","fr":""},"id":"Page7b778271-8d5b-4b04-b722-f0345a7d6e87"},"gInfo":""},{"pcInfo":"","mAndTabInfo":"","bannerInfo":{"t_id":"Paged3e789af-cbd7-482e-914c-835364af1847","language":{"fr_ca":"","en_ca":"%3Cp%3E%3Cstrong%3E%3Cspan%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3C%2Fspan%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3Cstrong%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3Cstrong%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3EMy%20Lenovo%20Rewards!%26nbsp%3B%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3Cspan%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3EEarn%203%25-9%25%20in%20rewards%20and%20get%20free%20expedited%20delivery%20on%20select%20products.%3C%2Fspan%3E%3Cspan%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2Fspan%3E%3Ca%20href%3D%22%2Frewards%2F%3FIPromoID%3DLEN775755%22%20target%3D%22_self%22%3E%3Cstrong%3EJoin%20For%20Free%20%26gt%3B%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3C%2Fa%3E%3C%2Fp%3E","en":"%3Cp%3E%3Cstrong%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3Cstrong%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3Cstrong%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3EMy%20Lenovo%20Rewards!%26nbsp%3B%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3Cspan%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3EEarn%203%25-9%25%20in%20rewards%20and%20get%20free%20expedited%20delivery%20on%20select%20products.%3C%2Fspan%3E%3Cspan%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2Fspan%3E%3Ca%20href%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fadmin.lenovo.com%2Frewards%2F%3FIPromoID%3DLEN775755%22%20target%3D%22_self%22%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3Cstrong%3EJoin%20For%20Free%20%26gt%3B%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3C%2Fa%3E%3Ca%20href%3D%22%2Frewards%2F%3FIPromoID%3DLEN775755%22%20target%3D%22_self%22%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3Cstrong%3E%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3C%2Fa%3E%3C%2Fp%3E","fr":""},"id":"Paged3e789af-cbd7-482e-914c-835364af1847"},"gInfo":""},{"pcInfo":"","mAndTabInfo":"","bannerInfo":{"t_id":"Pageb07f129d-3d87-4f1e-a79a-69d8248981b9","language":{"fr_ca":"","en_ca":"%3Cp%3E%3Cspan%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3EBusiness%20Financing%20Available.%20Split%20payments%20from%204%20to%2052%20weeks%2C%20options%20as%20low%20as%200%25%20interest.%26nbsp%3B%3C%2Fspan%3E%3Ca%20href%3D%22%2Flandingpage%2Flenovo-financing-options%2F%3FIPromoID%3DLEN771093%22%20target%3D%22_self%22%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3Cstrong%3ESee%20Details%20%26gt%3B%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3C%2Fa%3E%3C%2Fp%3E","en":"%3Cp%3E%3Cspan%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3EBusiness%20Financing%20Available.%20Split%20payments%20from%204%20to%2052%20weeks%2C%20options%20as%20low%20as%200%25%20interest.%26nbsp%3B%3C%2Fspan%3E%3Ca%20href%3D%22%2Flandingpage%2Flenovo-financing-options%2F%3FIPromoID%3DLEN771093%22%20target%3D%22_self%22%20style%3D%22text-wrap%3A%20wrap%3B%22%3E%3Cstrong%3ESee%20Details%20%26gt%3B%3C%2Fstrong%3E%3C%2Fa%3E%3C%2Fp%3E","fr":""},"id":"Pageb07f129d-3d87-4f1e-a79a-69d8248981b9"},"gInfo":""},{"pcInfo":"","mAndTabInfo":"","bannerInfo":{"t_id":"Page45a22b6b-70f3-4698-9255-e4681af2b5b9","language":{"fr_ca":"","en_ca":"%3Cp%3EFree%20shipping%20sitewide%2C%20no%20minimum.%3C%2Fp%3E","en":"%3Cp%3EFree%20shipping%20sitewide%2C%20no%20minimum.%3C%2Fp%3E","fr":""},"id":"Page45a22b6b-70f3-4698-9255-e4681af2b5b9"},"gInfo":""}],"autoRun":true,"displayTerminal":"pc,tablet,mobile","isShowDivide":true}


What is Multics?

Multiplexed information and computing service (Multics) was a pioneering computer operating system developed in the 1960s and 1970s. Although not directly related to laptops, its influence on modern computing is noteworthy. Multics pioneered concepts like time-sharing, virtual memory, and hierarchical file systems, shaping the foundations of contemporary operating systems. While laptops weren't prevalent during Multics' era, its impact resonates in the efficient, secure, and interactive computing environments we enjoy today on various devices, including laptops. Understanding Multics provides valuable insights into the evolution of operating systems that contribute to the laptops we use in the present day.

How did Multics differ from other operating systems of its time?

Unlike its predecessors, Multics introduced the concept of time-sharing, allowing multiple users to interact with the system simultaneously. This marked a shift towards a more collaborative and dynamic computing experience.

What role did security play in the design of Multics?

Security played a pivotal role in Multics' design, shaping its innovative approach to operating systems. The implementation of a ring structure, dividing system resources into hierarchical levels, bolstered data protection and thwarted unauthorized access. Multics prioritized a robust security model, setting a standard for subsequent operating systems. This emphasis on security laid the foundation for secure computing environments, influencing the evolution of modern security features in laptops and other computing devices. The principles established by Multics continue to resonate in contemporary systems, ensuring a secure and reliable computing experience for users.

What is the significance of the ring structure in Multics?

The ring structure in Multics, a pioneering operating system, holds significant importance in computer security. This hierarchical model divides system resources into privileged rings, with higher rings having greater access rights. This innovative approach enhances data protection, preventing unauthorized access and fortifying system integrity. The significance of Multics' ring structure extends beyond its era, influencing modern operating systems and contributing to the foundational principles of computer security, a crucial consideration in today's interconnected and data-driven computing landscape. Understanding the ring structure sheds light on the evolution of secure computing practices in the digital age.

How did Multics contribute to the development of modern computing?

Multics, the pioneering operating system of the 1960s, significantly influenced modern computing. Its innovative concepts, including time-sharing, hierarchical file structures, and a robust security model, laid the groundwork for contemporary operating systems like Unix, Linux®, Windows, and others. Multics' emphasis on virtual memory and efficient resource management also shaped the evolution of programming languages and networking protocols. While Multics itself faced challenges and eventual decline, its enduring impact resonates in the foundational principles of secure, collaborative, and efficient computing that continue to drive technological advancements in the laptop era and beyond.

What programming languages were supported on Multics?

Multics supported a variety of programming languages, including PL/I, BCPL, and assembly languages. This broad language support contributed to its popularity among developers with diverse programming preferences.

Were there any notable applications developed for Multics?

Yes, multics hosted a range of applications, from early versions to compilers for various programming languages. Its extensible design fostered a vibrant ecosystem of tools and software that enriched the computing experience for users and developers alike.

How did Multics handle file management and storage?

Multics revolutionized file management and storage by introducing a hierarchical file structure. This innovation organized data into directories and subdirectories, creating a precursor to modern file systems. Users could efficiently manage and access their files, setting a standard for organized data storage. Multics' approach to file management laid the foundation for contemporary systems, influencing the user-friendly interfaces and hierarchical organization we associate with laptop file systems today. Understanding Multics' impact on storage architecture provides valuable insights into the evolution of efficient and organized file management in the realm of laptops and computing.

What is Multics' approach to virtual memory?

Multics revolutionized virtual memory by introducing a sophisticated system that allowed programs to use more memory than physically available. Its innovative approach to virtual memory management set a precedent for modern operating systems. The hierarchical ring structure in Multics provided a secure and efficient way to allocate and protect memory, enhancing overall system performance. This forward-thinking design significantly influenced subsequent operating systems, shaping the landscape of virtual memory usage on contemporary devices, including laptops. Understanding Multics' approach provides valuable insights into the evolution of virtual memory systems, impacting how laptops optimize and utilize their available memory resources.

Did Multics have a graphical user interface (GUI)?

Multics primarily operated through a command-line interface rather than a graphical one. However, its innovative features in security and resource management paved the way for later systems that incorporated graphical user interfaces, revolutionizing the way users interact with computers.

What are the key differences between Multics and Unix?

While both aimed for interactive computing, Multics was large-scale and resource-intensive, whereas Unix focused on simplicity and efficiency. Unix embraced a modular approach, encouraging small, specialized utilities that could be combined, contrasting Multics' monolithic design.

What is the Multics' influence on the development of networking protocols?

While Multics itself wasn't directly involved in networking, its emphasis on time-sharing and resource management laid a foundation for the development of networking protocols. As computers became interconnected, the lessons learned from Multics contributed to the evolution of communication standards and the birth of the internet.

How did the demise of Multics impact the computing community?

The decline of Multics marked a turning point, prompting a reevaluation of large-scale, monolithic approaches to operating system design. This shift paved the way for the rise of more nimble, modular systems that could adapt to evolving technological landscapes, fostering innovation in computing.

How did Multics handle system crashes or failures?

Multics incorporated fault-tolerant mechanisms to minimize the impact of system crashes. Its design included features like restartable processes, helping to recover from failures gracefully. This approach influenced subsequent systems in ensuring system reliability and minimizing disruptions.

How did Multics contribute to the understanding of human-computer interaction (HCI)?

Multics, through its time-sharing capabilities, provided a more interactive and responsive computing experience. This laid the groundwork for advancements in human-computer interaction, influencing the design principles that shaped user interfaces in later operating systems.

Were there any notable applications of Multics outside traditional computing environments?

Multics found applications beyond conventional computing, particularly in research and development environments. Its time-sharing capabilities were valuable for collaborative projects, demonstrating its versatility beyond standard business or academic computing use.

{"pageComponentDataId":"c6016cday5451-43d6-9d34-e558a08d2b76","isAssociatedRelease":"true","pageComponentDataLangCode":"en","configData":{"jumpType":"currentTab","headlineColor":"black","displayNumber":"","styleMode":"vertical","headline":"","products":[{"number":{"t_id":"4XD1C99223","language":{"fr_ca":"","en_ca":"4XD1C99223","en_us":"","en":"4XD1C99223","fr":""},"id":"Paged364d785-5b43-46f3-897f-cfc1f2886cc5"}},{"number":{"t_id":"GX30Z21568","language":{"fr_ca":"","en_ca":"GX30Z21568","en_us":"","en":"GX30Z21568","fr":""},"id":"Page8a92c658-e187-4221-a70b-abfeb5c40052"}},{"number":{"t_id":"GX41L44752","language":{"fr_ca":"","en_ca":"GX41L44752","en_us":"","en":"GX41L44752","fr":""},"id":"Page3c3ca4cb-191e-42d6-b6bf-2a17188dcd34"}},{"number":{"t_id":"GY51F14319","language":{"fr_ca":"","en_ca":"GY51F14319","en_us":"","en":"GY51F14319","fr":""},"id":"Page9aad6b00-44a5-4f35-91db-6509e57b5f2f"}},{"number":{"t_id":"4Z91K18761","language":{"fr_ca":"","en_ca":"4Z91K18761","en_us":"","en":"4Z91K18761","fr":""},"id":"Page8d533231-87a4-40f2-9a1c-5e922f32affc"}}]},"urlPrefix":"AAAAAAAFAAAH","needGetLatestTransDataKey":"needGetLatestTransDataValue","title":"glossary-right-blue-boxes-fragment","pageId":"ed8ce94b-788f-4a56-a348-d72df37718b3","urlEdit":0,"uri":"/FragmentDirectory/gloccery/glossary-right-blue-boxes-fragment.frag","pageComponentId":"c6016cday5451-43d6-9d34-e558a08d2b76","tplId":"e60a662e-c1b6-4ba3-afa9-6f6977b562f8","pageComponentUuid":"c6016cday5451-43d6-9d34-e558a08d2b76","targetUser":"0"}
coming coming
Starting at
List Price
Est Value
Est Value:
List Price
Est Value (Estimated Value)
List Price is Lenovo’s estimate of product value based on the industry data, including the prices at which first and third-party retailers and etailers have offered or valued the same or comparable products. Third-party reseller data may not be based on actual sales.
Estimated value is Lenovo’s estimate of product value based on industry data, including the prices at which Lenovo and/or third-party retailers and e-tailers have offered or valued the same or comparable products. Third-party data may not be based on actual sales.
Learn More
See More
See Less
View {0} Model
View {0} Models
Delivery options for {0}
Part Number
Features
See More
See Less
Compare
Added!
Great choice!
You may compare up to 4 products per product category (laptops, desktops, etc). Please de-select one to add another.
View Your Comparisons
Add To Cart
Add To Cart
We're sorry,
Products are temporarily unavailable.
Continue Shopping
Learn More
Coming Soon
Featured Product
Featured Products
Oops! No results found. Visit the categories above to find your product.
Save

Seasonal Sales & FAQ's

open in new tab
© 2024 Lenovo. All rights reserved.
© {year} Lenovo. All rights reserved.
Compare  ()
x